discoveries into clinical
diagnostics and therapeutics
Adaptive Biotechnologies is at the forefront of immune-based discoveries. We believe that a better understanding of the adaptive immune system is transforming the course of medicine, and impacting therapeutic areas such as oncology, autoimmunity and infectious diseases among others.
Adaptive Biotechnologies combines high-throughput sequencing and expert bioinformatics to profile T-cell and B-cell receptors. Adaptive is bringing the accuracy and sensitivity of its immunosequencing platform into laboratories around the world to drive groundbreaking research in cancer and other immune-mediated diseases. Adaptive also translates immunosequencing discoveries into clinical diagnostics and therapeutic development to improve patient care.
QUANTIFYING TUMOR INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES IN SOLID TUMORS
Adaptive is validating a novel clinical diagnostic to quantify the presence and clonality of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that is a reliable measure of “immunocompetence” to predict and monitor response to immune-modulating cancer therapies.
Preliminary data in variety of tumor types including colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer and glioblastoma suggest that a higher level of clonally expanded TILs may correlate with better patient outcomes. Adaptive is invested in research and development to validate and incorporate into clinical practice this potentially new and meaningful immune molecular diagnostic for better prognostic staging of patients with solid tumors.
The TIL assay is also actively being validated as a potential predictive diagnostic to monitor response to immune-modulating cancer therapeutics. Several human and mouse studies are assessing response to a variety of cancer immunotherapies including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Preliminary results suggest that greater TIL clonal expansion and percent tumor infiltration in tumor tissue prior to treatment may be predictive biomarkers of response.
MEASURING IMMUNE RECONSTITUTION POST-TRANSPLANT
The immunoSEQ® Assay is also being used to characterize immune reconstitution post-cord blood transplantation. A key complication of cord blood transplantation is the high risk and rate of infection associated with non-relapse mortality. Today, the only predictive measure of infection risk is a cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) count of total T-cells present. In several research studies using the immunoSEQ Assay, T-cell diversity correlated with infection risk, whereas CD3 count does not.
DIAGNOSING CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA (CTCL)
CTCL is a sub-type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that begins in the white blood cells and attacks the skin. There are several types of CTCLs, including mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Some CTCL patients develop progressive lethal disease, characterized by malignant T cells that accumulate in the blood, skin and lymph nodes. Patients with these aggressive forms of CTCL are typically refractory to therapy and have a median survival of a mere three years.
CTCL diagnosis is challenging, especially in the early stages of the disease, because the proportion clonal malignant T cells is small relative to the total T cell population. Also, CTCL is often misdiagnosed for benign inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. By high-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptors (TCRs), Adaptive can provide a sensitive and quantitative profile of the expanded T-cell population that may allow an early definitive diagnosis of patients with CTCL.
Adaptive is expanding its immunosequencing capabilities to include a new proprietary pairSEQ™ Assay that employs a pioneering process to combine Adaptive’s foundational immunoSEQ® Platform for sequencing each TCR chain independently with a sophisticated bioinformatics framework to facilitate pairing of these chains. The identification of true alpha and beta chain pairs that form a specific TCR has tremendous applications in ascribing TCR functionality and therapeutic potential beyond current TCR drug discovery approaches. The pairSEQ Assay enables highly accurate, rapid and scalable pairing of up to hundreds of thousands of TCR alpha or beta sequences in a single experiment and can be applied to the process of therapeutic discovery, including the identification of highly promising TCRs for adoptive T-cell therapy.